工程施工管理及监理

 

工程管理
   一个工程管理的好坏,除对人员、材料、机具进行管理外,更重要的是资金管理和资金使用。材料购置,劳务支出等等皆须由项目管理者支配,因此能否合理使用资金,是检验一个管理者是否具备工程管理基本素质的重要条件,除此,管理者必须是具有一定工程成本核算和财务、统计知识的内行。这样,才能对资金在工程中的合理使用做到心中有数。 
  
  施工日记
 
  施工日记应反映整个工程施工的运作过程,在工程管理中起到备忘、核对、检查的作用。例如:在施工期间,管理人员为了调整后期的施工部署,需要参照前期的施工情况作依据,便可在施工日记中检索;如果工程施工进度不理想,达不到设计进度要求,是哪一个环节没跟上,也可在施工日记中查找原因;工程施工中,甲方可能提出一些修改意见,均可记录在施工日记中,以便日后查对。施工日记应载明当天日期、天气情况、施工项目、施工人数、材料使用、工作进度、施工现场状况及有关工程的事项。 
  工程施工管理中的一个重要环节便是施工检查,施工检查工作能反映出管理人员的管理水平和责任心。施工检查分为三个方面: 
  1)工艺质量检查 
  检查施工阶段中各工序是否符合灯光施工工程质量验收规范要求,及时发现问题进行纠正,以免发生不可挽回的损失。 
  2)安全文明施工检查 
  现场安全文明施工是衡量一个施工单位素质高低的最起码的标准,安全施工规范文明施工要求不仅要有详细的规定,而且要有专职人员负责实施,现场安全施工的。重点是防火,其次是现场安全防护,对照安全施工条例检查现场施工的执行情况是每个管理者义不容辞的责任和义务,不能认为只是安全员的事。当然,工地安全员作为专职人员,更应该负责维护现场安全规章制度的落实和检查。 
  
  3)施工进度检查
 
  除重点检查关键工序的施工进度外,也要经常了解其他工序的进度,发现问题及时解决。重视对非关键工序的检查,是为了避免非关键工序转变为关键工序,即由于它的阻滞成为施工进度中的障碍,影响整个工期。根据进度检查的结果,按实际施工进度不断的修正原工程进度表,以方便控制工程进度。对转变为阻碍施工进度的工序,应引起高度重视,除进行及时调整外,还需做该工序的施工流程图,以便合理地调动人力物力进行施工,确保该工序能赶上进度计划。

Project Management


  The quality of a project management, in addition to management of personnel, materials, equipment, more importantly, fund management and use of funds. Purchase of materials, labor expenditures, and so are subject to the project managers dominate, so the rational use of funds, an important condition to test whether managers have the basic quality of project management, In addition, managers must be certain project costing and financial, statistical knowledge of experts. In this way, in order to be aware of the rational use of funds in the project.

Construction diary

Construction diary should reflect the operation of the entire construction process, to play in the project management memos, check the role of the check. For example: During construction, the management staff in order to adjust the post-construction deployment, need to refer to the pre-construction as a basis, and can be retrieved in the construction diary; if the project construction schedule is not ideal, amounting to less than the design schedule requirements, which link did not keep up, in the construction diary to find out the reasons; construction, the Party may propose some modifications, could be recorded in the diary of construction, for future check. Construction diary should contain the date of the day, weather conditions, construction projects, construction number, use of materials, work progress, construction site conditions and project matters.

An important part in the construction management is the construction inspection, construction inspection work reflect the level of management and responsibility of the management staff. Construction inspection is divided into three areas:

1) process quality inspection
Check on the construction phase of various processes in line with the lighting construction project quality and acceptance specifications, the timely detection of problems to be corrected in order to avoid irreparable damage.

2) a safe and civilized construction inspection
Site safe and civilized construction is a measure of the level of minimum standards of the quality of a construction unit, construction safety norms of civilized construction requires not only have detailed provisions, and to have full-time staff responsible for implementing, on-site construction safety. Focus on fire prevention, site security, the implementation of the control check on-site construction of construction safety regulations unshirkable responsibilities and obligations of each manager can not be considered just a matter of safety member. Of course, the site safety officer as a full-time staff should be responsible for the maintenance of site safety rules and regulations to implement and check.

3) construction progress checks
In addition to the focus on examination of the key processes of the construction schedule, but also informed of the progress of other processes, identify problems promptly resolved. Attention to the inspection of non-critical processes, key processes in order to avoid non-critical processes change, become an obstacle in the construction schedule due to its block, affecting the entire duration. According to the progress of the inspection results, according to the actual construction schedule constantly to amend the original project schedule, in order to facilitate control work progress. Changes in order to impede the progress of the construction process, you should attach great importance to the construction flow chart of the process in addition to the timely adjustment needs to be done, in order to mobilize human and material resources for construction, to ensure that the process can catch up with the schedule

 工程监理

基本职责是依据施工承包合同进行监理,通过计划、组织、控制协调、激励等手段,促使承包合同双方履行各自的义务,最终完成工程项目。

 

 1.1计划工作

    1)制定项目管理工作计划,包括工程整体进度计划及其它工作计划等;

    2)制定监理工作计划;

3)审核批准承包人提交的进度计划、主要材料计划和用款计划。

 

 1.2组织工作

    1)根据本“办法”的规定,落实各级监理人员的职责、分工及协作关系;

    2)工程施工过程中,就合同执行的有关问题组织承包人召开工地会议;

    3)在工程施工过程中及时组织各种质量检验工作,工程交工时组织工程,交工验收工作; 

    4)对承包人完成的工程数量及时组织核实工作并进行确认;

    5)对重大设计变更和重大技术问题组织有关单位,部门进行专题讨论。

 

  1.3监理控制

     1)督促承包人及时提交总体施工进度计划,年、季度计划,进行审阅并签认;

     2)对承包人的施工详图设计(包括临时工程设计和永久工程设计)进行审查;

    3)对承包人的分包活动进行监督和控制,对指定分包人进行监督和管理;

    4)对承包人的施工进度计划落实情况进行监督。当实际进度达不到计划进度时,监督承包人及时增加施工力量,加快施工进度。当承包人的进场人员包括项目经理不称职时,及时监督进行更换;

    5)对承包人施工放线的准确性及时进行监督和检查;

    6)对承包人到场的材料或设备及时进行检验,必要时在制造场所或运输途中进行检查,以监督其达到质量要求;

    7)对承包人的施工进行现场跟踪,对施工质量进行抽样检验以监督承包人的施工质量达到合同要求;

    8)监督承包人及时办理履约担保、工程保险等手续;

    9)对承包人完成的工程量进行计量和监督,并及时开具计量证书;

    10)对承包人应获得的支付款进行监督和控制;

    11)对承包人应获得的施工索赔、延期的合法权益进行监督;

    12)对工程的交工质量进行监督检查,办理交工验收证书,对缺陷责任期(保修期)内的工程质量进行监督检查,发现问题要求承包人及时无偿返工,缺陷责任期满后向承包人开具缺陷责任期终止证书;

    13)对监理的工作质量进行内部分级监督,即在监理组织机构中实行分级监理制度,上一级监理人员有权监督、审查下级监理人员的工作,以保证监理执法的准确性。

 

 1.4监理协调

    1)协调业主与承包人的合同关系。在施工过程中,包括由监理协调业主和承包人之间的合同争议,有效地解决合同纠纷,避免双方直接冲突,保证合同的正常性;

 2)协助业主协调施工单位与地方的关系,在施工过程中,施工单位为了获取施工用的地方性材料,这些材料的运输可能和地方发生分歧,施工可能对地方产生干扰以及影响当地居民的人身财产安全等问题。为使施工正常进行,监理人员应协助业主协调其中的矛盾,使施工尽量少受影响;

    3)协调施工单位与施工单位的关系,施工过程中,不同合同段具有相对独立性,施工期间难免互相产生施工干扰,监理工程师应及时进行协调,妥善处理双方的矛盾,防止施工受到影响;

    4)协调监理与承包人的关系。尽管施工过程中监理工程师与承包人的关系是监理与被监理的关系,但监理人员要使监理工作的指示和决定得到承包人贯彻执行,和承包人保持良好的工作关系是很重要的,所以监理工作中应积极协调好双方的关系;

    5)协调监理组织内部的工作关系;

    6)协调设计与施工的关系。

 

 1.5质量监理职责

    1)向承包人书面提供原始基准点、基准线和基准标高等资料,进行现场交桩;

    2)在开工前和施工过程中,检查用于工程的材料和施工设备,对于不符合合同要求的,有权拒绝使用;

    3)签发各项工程的开工通知书,必要时通知施工单位暂时停止整个工程或任何部分工程施工;

    4)对承包人的检验、测试工作进行全面监督;有权利用施工单位的测试仪器设备对工程质量进行检验,凭数据对工程质量进行评定;

    5)按施工进度跟班检查(包括旁站巡视);对每道工序、每个部位进行质量检查和现场监督,对质量符合施工合同规定的部分或全部工程签认,对不符合质量要求的工程,有权要求承包人返工或采取其它补救措施,一定达到合同规定的技术要求;

   6)对承包人进场的主要施工机械设备的数量、规格、性能按合同要求进行监督、检查,由于机械设备的原因影响工程的工期和质量,监理工程师有权提出更换或停止使用;

   7)协助业主及时妥善完成合同规定的责任事项和法定承诺提供的施工条件。

1.6进度监理职责

    1)审批承包人在开工前提交的施工总体进度计划,现金流动计划和总说明,以及在施工阶段提交的各种详细计划和变更计划;

    2)审批承包人根据总体施工进度计划编制的年、季度计划;

    3)在施工过程中检查和监督计划的实施,当工程未能按计划进行时,要求施工单位调整或修改计划,并通知承包人采取必要的措施加快施工进度,以使实际施工进度符合施工合同的要求;

    4)定期向业主报告工程进度情况,当施工进度可能导致合同工期严重延误时,有责任提出中止执行施工合同的详细报告,供业主采取措施做出相应的决定。

1.7费用监理职责

  1)按施工合同的规定,现场计量核实合同工程量清单规定的任何已完工程数量和费用;

  2)按合同规定审查、签发中期支付证书及合同终止后任何款项的支付证书。对不符合规范和合同文件要求的工程项目和施工活动,有权暂拒支付,直到上述项目和施工活动达到要求;

  3)依据施工合同文件规定,对合同执行期间由于国家或省颁发的法律、法令、法规,致使工程费用发生的增减,或影响工程费用任何事项的价格涨落,而引起的工程费用发生的增减,监理工程师在与业主和承包人协商后,经合理计算确定新的合同单价或按调整幅度予以支付。

 

1.8合同管理职责

  1)参加开工前的第一次工地会议和施工阶段的工地例会,有权参加承包人为施工合同组织的有关会议;

  2)根据工程实际情况,监理工程师可以按施工合同规定的变更范围,对工程或其任何部分做出变更的决定,并下达变更令。对施工合同中规定的重大工程变更,由监理工程师审查后,报业主核批;

   3)对承包人提出的工期的延长或费用索赔,有责任就其申述的理由查清全部情况,并根据合同规定程序审定延长工期或索赔的款项,按规定权限审批;

   4)监理工程师必须认真审查承包人的任何分包人的资格和分包人的工程的类型、数量,按合同规定程序和权限审批;

5)监督施工单位主要技术,管理人员构成、数量与合同所列名单是否相符;对不称职的主要技术、管理人员,监理工程师有权提出更换要求。

Project Supervision
The basic duty of supervision, program, organization, control, coordination, incentives and other means to promote the contract both parties to fulfill their respective obligations, and ultimately complete the project according to the construction contract.
 
 1.1 The planning
    (1) to develop project management plans, including the overall project schedule and work plan;
    (2) develop a supervision plan;
(3) The examination and approval of the schedule submitted by the contractor, the main material planning and use of funds scheme.

 1.2 The work of the Organization
    (1) In accordance with the provisions of the "measures" to implement the responsibilities of the supervisors at all levels, division of labor and collaborative relationships;
    (2) the construction process, the execution of the contract issues related to the organization contractor held a site meeting;
    (3) organize a variety of quality inspection in the construction process in a timely manner, tissue engineering, project hand over hand over the acceptance of work;
    (4) organization to verify and confirm the number of works the contractor has done in a timely manner;
    (5) the organization of major design changes, and major technical problems related to units and departments to discuss this issue.
 
  1.3 Supervision and Control of
     (1) urge the contractor to timely submission of the overall construction schedule, the annual, quarterly plans, reviewed and signed off;
     (2) review of the contractor the construction details of the design (including design of temporary works and permanent works design);
    (3) supervision and control of the contractor's subcontracting activities, to supervise and manage the designated subcontractor;
    (4) the implementation of the contractor's construction schedule for supervision. When the actual progress of less than schedule, supervision of contractors in a timely manner to increase the construction of power, and speed up the construction schedule. When the contractor's approach staff including project managers are incompetent and timely supervision to be replaced;
    (5) to supervise and check the accuracy of the contractor construction setting;
    (6) The inspection contractor arrived at the scene of the materials or equipment in a timely manner, if necessary, in the way of manufacturing sites or transport to inspect, to oversee the meet quality requirements;
    (7) of the contractor's construction site tracking, quality of construction, carry out random inspection and supervision of the contractor's construction quality to meet the contract requirements;
    (8) supervision of the contractor in time for the performance guarantee, engineering insurance and other procedures;
    (9) measured the amount of the contractor to complete the engineering and supervision, and promptly issued a measurement certificate;
    (10) The Contractor shall obtain payments for supervision and control;
    (11) the legitimate rights and interests of the contractor construction claims, extension of supervision;
    (12) hand over the quality of the engineering supervision and inspection, for the Certificate of Completion Acceptance, supervise and inspect the quality of the project within the defect liability period (warranty period), found that the problem requires the contractor in a timely manner free of charge rework, to the contractor after the expiry of the Defects Liability issuance of the defects liability period to terminate the certificate;
    (13) internal grading supervision of the quality of the work of supervision, supervision organization and classification supervision system, a supervisors the right to monitor, review the work of subordinate supervisors, to ensure the accuracy of the law enforcement supervision.
 
 1.4 Supervision Coordination
    (1) coordination of the contractual relationship of the owners and the contractor. During the construction process, including coordinated by the Commissioner of the contract dispute between owners and contractors to resolve contract disputes, to avoid direct conflict, to ensure the normal of the contract;
 (2) to assist owners to coordinate the relationship between the construction unit and the place in the construction process, the construction unit in order to obtain local materials for construction of the transport of these materials may be local differences, the construction may cause interference to local and the impact of local residents personal and property safety. Construction normal, supervisors should assist owners to coordinate one of the contradictions, the construction is as little as possible affected;
    (3) to coordinate the relationship between the construction unit and construction unit, construction process, contract section with relative independence, during the construction period will inevitably produce construction interfere with each other, supervising engineer should be coordinated and properly handle the conflicts between, to prevent the construction affected;
    (4) to coordinate the relationship between supervision and contractor. Supervising engineer and contractor in the construction process, supervision and supervision, but the instructions and decisions of the supervisors to make the work of the Commissioner of the contractor carried out, and contractors to maintain a good working relationship is very important, so Supervision should actively coordinate the relationship between the two;
    (5) coordination of the working relationship of supervision within the organization;
    (6) to coordinate the relationship between design and construction.
 
 1.5 Quality Supervision duties
    (1) in writing to the contractor to provide the original reference point, baseline and benchmark elevation data, on-site cross-pile;
    (2) in the pre-construction and construction process, check for engineering materials and construction equipment, which do not meet the requirements of the contract, the right to refuse to use;
    (3) the issue of notice of the project started, if necessary, notify the construction unit to temporarily stop the entire project or any part of the construction;
    (4) the contractor's test, the test work under the overall supervision; the right to use the construction unit of test equipment to test the quality of the project assessed the quality of the project, with the data;
    (5) of the construction progress of the attendant checks (including next to the station to inspect); each process, each site quality inspection and site supervision, quality meets some or all of the engineering of the construction contract was signed, does not meet the quality requirements engineering, have the right to require the contractor to rework or take other remedial measures, must reach the technical requirements of the contract;
   (6) The contractor approach the number of construction machinery and equipment, specifications, performance, supervision, inspection, required under the contract and the reasons for the duration of the impact of engineering machinery and equipment and quality of supervision engineers have the right to replace or to stop using;
   (7) to assist owners in a timely and proper completion of the construction contract liability issues and legal commitment to provide.
1.6 progress supervision duties
    (1) the overall construction schedule approval submitted by the contractor in the pre-construction, cash flow plans and general information, as well as a variety of detailed plans submitted during the construction phase and the change of plan;
    (2) years of approval of the Contractor under the overall construction schedule prepared quarterly plans;
    (3) inspect and supervise the implementation of the plan during the construction process, when the projects are not according to plan, require the construction unit to adjust or modify the plan and notify the contractor to take the necessary measures to expedite the construction schedule, so that the actual construction schedule to meet the construction requirements of the contract;
    (4) report to the owners on a regular basis the progress of the works, when the construction progress of the contract period may lead to serious delays, has the responsibility to suspend the implementation of a detailed report of the construction contract for the owners to take measures to make the appropriate decision.
1.7 The cost of supervision responsibilities
  (1) the provisions of the construction contract, on-site measurement to verify the number and cost of the contract BOQ provisions of any work already done;
  (2) according to the contract review, the issue of the certificate of payment of any sum interim payment certificate and termination of the contract. The project does not meet the requirements of specifications and contract documents and construction activities, the right to temporarily refuse to pay until the above-mentioned projects and construction activities meet the requirements;
  (3) under the provisions of the construction contract documents issued during the execution of the contract due to the national or provincial laws, decrees, regulations, resulting in changes in the cost of the project, or the impact of price fluctuations of any matter of the cost of the project, caused the cost of the project increase or decrease, the supervising engineer, after consultation with the owners and contractors, a reasonable calculation to determine the new contract unit price adjustment to be paid.
 
1.8 Contract management responsibilities
  (1) regular meeting of the site to participate in site meetings for the first time in the pre-construction and construction phases, the right to participate in relevant meetings of the organization for the construction contract, the contractor;
  (2) in accordance with the actual situation of the project, the supervising engineer can change the scope of the construction contract, project or any part thereof to make changes to the decision and issued a change order. Change after review by the supervising engineer, the owners reported for examination and approval of major projects specified in the construction contract;
   (3) the duration extension proposed by the contractor or the cost of claims, has the responsibility to identify all of the reasons for its representations and validation under the contract procedure to extend the duration or the amount of the claim, the prescribed authority for approval;
   (4) The supervising engineer must carefully review the contractor's subcontractor's qualifications and sub-project types, quantities, contract procedures and authority for approval;
(5) the supervision of the construction units are mainly technical, management structure, the number of contracts listed in the list are consistent; incompetent technical and management personnel, supervising engineer has the right to request for a replacement.